And direct dating

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Recent advances in dating methods by Joannes-Boyau and Grun (2010; 2011) and Joannes-Boyau et al., (2009; 2010a,b and 2011) now allow for a more accurate non-destructive direct dating of human fossil remains, and have shown that most previous Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) age were underestimated by as much as 30% (Joannes-Boyau and Grun, 2011).The project aims to apply a pioneering non-destructive direct dating methodology to unique anatomically modern human remains (including Neanderthal fossils).This usually requires what is commonly known as a "dating method".Several dating methods exist, depending on different criteria and techniques, and some very well known examples of disciplines using such techniques are, for example, history, archaeology, geology, paleontology, astronomy and even forensic science, since in the latter it is sometimes necessary to investigate the moment in the past in which the death of a cadaver occurred.

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Additionally, the commonly used technique of radiocarbon dating reaches back only to about 50 to 60 ka and, as a consequence, many important questions in our understanding of human evolution cannot be addressed.

However, it is often difficult to place these discoveries in their temporal context.

Dating studies on paleoanthropological sites are usually carried out on material associated with the hominin remains, such as the sediment, charcoal or other fauna rather than the hominin specimen itself.

AA(State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources and Institute of Earth Sciences, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, PR China), AB(CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, PO Box 1130, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia), AC(State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources and Institute of Earth Sciences, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, PR China), AD(Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan), AE(Geological Survey of Norway-NGU, 7491 Trondheim, Norway), AF(State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources and Institute of Earth Sciences, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, PR China) Timing of folding is usually dated indirectly, with limited isotopic dating studies reported in the literature.

The present study investigated the timing of intracontinental, multi-stage folding in Upper Proterozoic sandstone, limestone, and marble near Beijing, North China, and adjacent regions.

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